• Scope and branches of biology, its relation with other subjects
  • Life and its origin, Oparin and Halden’s theory, Miller Urey Experiments
  • Life components (Organic and inorganic)


  • Definition, Organic evolution
  • History, theories of organic evolution ( Lamarckism, Darwinism, Neo-Darwinism)
  • Evidences of organic evolution (morphological, embryological, anatomical, palentological, chemical and genetical)
  • Human evolution.


A. Animal Diversity and Their Classification

  • General Characteristics and its classification up to class with examples of the following: 
  • Protozoa, 
  • Porifera,
  •  Coelenterata,
  •  Platyhelminthes, 
  • Aschelminthes,
  •  Annelida, 
  • Arthropoda, 
  • Mollusca, 
  • Echinodermata and 
  • Chordata.

B. Paramecium caudatum : 

  • Habit and habitat, structure, reproduction (Binary fission and Conjugation with its significance).

C. Rabbit

  • Bones Appendicular and Axial
  • A. Plasmodium vivax: Habit and habitat, structure (Sporozoite), life- cycle and control of malaria.
  • B. Pheretima posthuma: Habit and habitat, structure, digestive, nervous and reproductive system and economic importance of earthworms.
  • C. Rana tigrina: Habit and habitat, structure, digestive, nervous, respiratory, circulatory, excretory, and reproductive systems. Histology of the related organs


  • D. Developmental Biology
  • Development of frog (embryonic and post embryonic development)
  • Mammal (Rabbit /Man): 
  • Skin, 
  • respiratory,
  •  digestive, 
  • nervous,
  •  circulatory, 
  • excretory,
  •  and reproductive systems. 
  • Histology of the related organs,
  •  human blood groups and sense organs (Eye and Ear).

Human Diseases

  • Socially significant : Drug abuse, Alcoholism and Smoking.
  • Communicable: Typhoid, Tuberculosis, Ascariasis, Girardiasis and AIDS.
  • Non-communicable: Cancer.
  • Covid -19
  • Epithelial, Connective, Muscular and Nervous.
  • Animal Behavior
    • Reflex action
    • Taxes
    • Leadership
    • Migration of fishes and birds: Habit and habitat, structure, digestive, nervous and reproductive
  • Animal Adaptation
    • Aquatic.
    • Amphibians
    • Terrestrial
    • Volant (aerial)
    • Desert and parasitic