1. Language of Chemistry
    • Symbols and formulae, atoms and molecules, elements and compounds.
  2. States of Matter
    • Molecular interpretation of three states of matter Gaseous state: Gas laws: Boyle’s Law; Charles’ Law, Kelvin scale of temperature; universal gas constant; Dalton’s Law of partial pressure, Graham’s law of diffusion, kinetic theory of gases (no derivation), deviation of real gas from ideal behaviour, calculations involving gas laws. Liquid state: Properties of liquids, solution, the concentration of the solution, the concept of molarity, solubility, the effect of temperature on solubility, solubility curve, viscosity and surface tension. Solid state: Properties of solids, classification of solids based on different binding forces, crystals, crystal lattice, seven types of crystal systems.
  3. Laws of Stoichiometry and Avogadro’s Hypothesis Laws of stoichiometry
    • Law of conservation of mass, the law of constant proportions, the law of multiple proportions, the law of reciprocal proportions, Gay Lussac’s law of gaseous volumes, chemical calculations based on stoichiometry. Atomic and molecular masses, empirical and molecular formulae, Avogadro’s hypothesis, important deductions from Avogadro’s hypothesis, Avogadro’s number, mole concept, determination of chemical formulae from percent composition, problems based on chemical equations.
  4. Atomic Structure
    • The subatomic particles, the electrons and nucleons ( protons and neutrons), their masses and charges, the atomic mass unit, Dalton’s atomic theory, Rutherford’s experiment, Bohr’s model, interpretation of hydrogen spectra on the basis of Bohr’s model, elementary idea of quantum mechanical model of atom, de Broglie relation, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, quantum numbers, atomic orbital, shapes of s and p orbitals, Pauli’s exclusion principle, Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity; Aufbau principle, quantum designation of electrons, electronic configuration of atoms in the ground state up to Z = 30, Isotopes and fractional atomic weights, nuclear fission and fusion, radioactive disintegration and half-life.
  5. Chemical Bonding
    • Valency, octet rule, chemical bonds and Lewis structure, ionic bonds, covalent bond, electronegativity and ionic character of covalent bond, coordinate covalent bond, idea of metallic bonds, intermolecular forces, van der Waal’s forces, hydrogen bonding, importance of hydrogen bonding, VSEPR theory and shapes of BeF2,BF3,CH4, H2O, NH3 , PF5, and SF6.
  6. Oxidation and Reduction
    • Electronic concept of oxidation and reduction reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions by oxidation number and ion-electron methods.
  7. Periodic Table
    • Mendeleev’s periodic table, modern periodic law and long form of the periodic table, types of elements on the basis of the periodic table, periodic trends in ionization energy, electron affinity, atomic radii, electronegativity and valency.
  8. Acids, Bases and Salts
    • Classical definition, Arrhenius concept of acids, bases and salts, Bronsted-Lowry concept, Lewis concept, hydrogen ion concentration and pH, calculation of pH of strong acids, neutralization, hydrolysis of salts.
  9. Volumetric Analysis
    • Equivalent weight of elements and compounds (acids, bases and salts), standard solution, primary and secondary standards, different ways of expressing concentration of solution, normality equation, titration based on neutralization and redox reactions, indicator, titration curve and selection of acid-base indicator, solving problems on acidimetry and alkalimetry involving normality and molarity.
  10. Electrochemistry
    • Electrolytic and metallic conduction, Arrhenius theory of ionization, Faraday’s laws of electrolysis, electronic interpretation of Faraday’s laws, mechanism of electrolysis and criteria of product formation electrode potential, standard electrode potential, EMF of a galvanic cell and the use of electrode potential to predict a chemical reaction, commercial batteries.
  11. Chemical Kinetics
    • Rate of reaction, rate law and rate constant, order and molecularity, half-life period, factors affecting the rate of reaction ( particle size, concentration, temperature, and catalyst, the concept of activation energy, and the idea of a photochemical reaction.
  12. Chemical Equilibrium
    • Equilibrium in physical processes, features of dynamic equilibrium, equilibrium constant, Kp and Kc, relation between Kp and Kc , LeChatelier’s principle: effect of pressure, concentration, temperature and catalyst on chemical equilibrium), equilibrium involving ions, ionization of weak electrolytes(Ostwald’s dilution law), degree of ionization and ionization constant, solubility and solubility product, common ion effect and their applications.
  13. Chemical Thermodynamics
    • Language of thermochemistry, standard heats of formation and combustion, heat of neutralization, Hess’s law, energy changes in chemical reactions, spontaneous processes, second law of thermodynamics, entropy and its physical concept, entropy and criteria of spontaneity in terms of entropy change of universe, entropy change in phase transformations, Gibb’s free energy and the direction of chemical change, standard free energy change and equilibrium constant, free energy and useful work.
  1. Non-metals Hydrogen
    • Unique position in periodic table, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses. Oxygen and ozone: Preparation, properties and uses of oxygen, classification of oxides, preparation, properties and uses of ozone, the structure of ozone, hole in the ozone layer.
    • Water: Structure of water, solvent properties of water, hard and soft water, detergents and water pollution, heavy water.
    • Carbon: Allotropes of carbon including fullerene, preparation, properties and uses of CO and CO2, poisoning by CO.
    • Nitrogen: Nitrogen cycle, preparation, properties and uses of nitrogen, preparation, properties and uses of ammonia, principle of the manufacture of ammonia by Haber process, the structure of ammonia, principle of the manufacture of nitric acid by Ostwald process, properties and structure of and uses of nitric acid, the structure of oxides of nitrogen.
    • Sulfur: Allotropes of sulfur, preparation, properties and uses of H2S, SO2, principle of the manufacture of sulphuric acid by contact process, properties and uses of sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide and air pollution, acid rain.
    • Phosphorus: Allotropes of phosphorus, phosphine and phosphate fertilizer.
    • Halogen and halogen acids: Preparation, properties and uses, comparative study of HCl, HBr and HI, the test of halides and tincture of iodine
    • Noble gases: Introduction, isolation and uses of noble gases, compounds of xenon – xenon fluorides.
  2. Metals
    • Metals and metallurgy: Introduction, the distinction between metals and non-metals, metalloid, electrochemical series and occurrence of metal, metallurgical principle and metallurgical terms.
    • Alkali and alkaline earth metals: Periodic discussion, general characteristics of alkali and alkaline earth metals, principle of extraction of sodium (Down’s process), properties and uses of sodium, principle of manufacture of sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, and their properties and uses, biological importance of sodium and potassium, preparation, properties and uses of quicklime, plaster of Paris and bleaching powder, chemistry of magnesium hydroxide and Epsom salt. Coinage metals: Introduction, occurrence, extraction and properties of copper, the chemistry of compounds of copper and silver (CuO, Cu2O, CuSO4.5H2O, AgNO3, and AgCl), purity of gold (carats and fineness).
    • Heavy metals: (zinc, iron, mercury and lead) : Occurrence, extraction and properties of zinc, iron and mercury, manufacture of steel, heat treatment of steel, stainless steel, rusting of iron, galvanization, chemistry of compounds of iron, zinc and mercury and lead (FeCl3, FeCl3,6H2O, FeSO4. 7H2O, ZnO, ZnSO4.7 H2O, Hg2Cl2, HgCl2,PbO, and Pb3O4), Mercury pollution and mercury poisoning.
  1. Organic Chemistry
    • some basic principles Introduction: Definition, sources and importance of organic compounds, detection of N, S and halogens in organic compounds. Bonding in organic compounds: Tetracovalency of carbon, hybridization (sp,sp2 ,sp3 ), sigma and pi- bonds. Electronic displacement in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, mesomeric effect and resonance.
    • Fission in covalent bond: Hemolytic and heterolytic fission, electrophiles and nucleophiles, carbocation and carbanions.
    • The formula of organic compounds: Empirical, molecular and structural, functional groups, homologous series, isomerism (structural & stereoisomerism), nomenclature of organic compounds.
  2. Hydrocarbons
    • Classification of hydrocarbons, sources of hydrocarbons, nomenclature. Alkanes: Nomenclature, preparation, properties and uses of alkanes, octane number, preparation and properties of methane. Alkenes: Nomenclature, preparation, properties and uses of alkenes, Markovnikov’s rule and peroxide effect, preparation, properties and uses of ethene. Alkynes: Preparation, properties and uses of ethyne, acidic character of ethyne.
  3. Organic halogen compounds Alkyl halides
    • Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, properties and uses of alkyl halides. Chloroform: Preparation, properties and uses.
  4. Alcohols
    • Classification, nomenclature, the distinction between 1o , 2o and 3o alcohols, industrial preparation of ethanol (hydration of ethene and fermentation) properties of alcohols.
  5. Ethers
    • Nomenclature, important methods of preparation of diethyl ether, chemical and physical properties and uses of diethyl ether.
  6. Carbonyl Compounds
    • Structures and nomenclature, preparation, properties and uses of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction.
  7. Carboxylic Acids
    • Structures and nomenclature, preparation, properties and uses of formic and acetic acid, derivatives of carboxylic acid: acid chlorides, acid anhydrides, ester and amides.
  8. Amines
    • Structures, classification, nomenclature, distinction and separation of primary, secondary and tertiary amines, chemical and physical properties and uses of ethylamine.
  9. Aromatic Hydrocarbons
    • Benzene: Structure of benzene, nomenclature and structure of substituted benzene, properties and uses of benzene.
    • Aniline: Preparation, properties and uses. Nitrobenzene: Preparation, properties and uses. Phenol: Preparation, properties and uses.
  10. Carbohydrates, Proteins, Nucleic Acids, and Lipids Carbohydrates
    • Classification of carbohydrates, structures of glucose and fructose, functions of carbohydrates.
    • Protein: Amino acids and peptide bonds, classification of proteins, denaturation and hydrolysis of protein, functions of proteins.
    • Nucleic acids: Types and constituents of nucleic acids, functions of nucleic acids.
    • Lipids: Lipids and triglycerides, phospholipids.
  11. Polymers, Pesticides, Dyes and Drugs Polymers
    • Polymerization (addition and condensation), classification of polymers, and some important synthetic polymers (polyethylene, PVC, polystyrene, Teflon, polyester, Terylene (Dacron), nylon 66
    • Pesticides: Introduction, DDT, Malathion and pheromones
    • Dyes: Classification of dyes with examples (based on chemical constitution and mode of application)
    • Drugs: General introduction to drugs: Antiseptic, analgesic, antipyretic, antacids, and tranquilizers.